Anders Björklund applied and was invited to join the medical school at the University of Lund, where he would stay for his entire career. Although to this day, Björklund remains interested in finding successful techniques for transplanting dopaminergic cells into Parkinson patients, he believes that there is promise for finding completely new – and perhaps more successful – therapies by investigating the usefulness of neurotrophic factors and better understanding the underlying cause of Parkinson disease. His research has been concerned with reparative and neuroprotective mechanisms in the CNS using cell replacement and gene transfer techniques. His group was early in the study of neural tissue transplants, and in the 1970’s they pioneered the development of methods for cell transplantation to the mammalian brain and spinal cord. Their most important contributions during this dynamic period included studies on the survival, integration and functional connectivity of fetal neuroblasts grafted to the CNS of adult rats, functional cell replacement in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, and in animal models of hippocampal damage and cognitive decline. They have been one of the leading groups in the exploration of GDNF and its neuroprotective and regenerative properties in the nigro-striatal dopamine system and in the forefront of research aimed at developing recombinant AAV and lentiviral vectors for neuroprotective and restorative therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease.